A. A. Antipathes

Against-suffering Against-disease Flower-animal Stinging-nettle Animals

Antipatharians, also known as black corals or thorn corals, are an order of soft deep-water corals. These corals can be recognized by their jet-black or dark brown chitin skeletons, surrounded by the polyps (part of coral that is alive). Antipatharians are a cosmopolitan order, existing at nearly every location and depth, with the sole exception of brackish waters. However, they are most frequently found on continental slopes under 50 m (164 ft) deep. A black coral reproduces both sexually and asexually throughout its lifetime. Many black corals provide housing, shelter, food, and protection for other animals.

Antipatharia. Retrieved February, 13 2022, from

Antipathidae is a family of corals in the order Antipatharia, commonly known as black corals.

Antipathidae. Retrieved February, 13 2022, from